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The meanings of common medical terms and compounds

On this site you would have encountered some terms and expressions used, associated with health supplements. To help you better understand what's being said, we have created this knowledge base of descriptions for common medical terms, some listed further below. Instead of giving you just dry definitions, we have built a little more knowledge and created separate pages for some of these pharmaceutical compounds and expressions.

   Medical Terms and Compounds
Age Pigment

Age Pigment

Commonly known as age spots, dark spots or sun spots, this skin pigmentation process becomes more visible with advancing age. It's caused by build up of melanin, which accummulates through 'wear and tear' of the body cells.

Antioxidants Info

Antioxidants Info

The role of antioxidants and antioxidant substances is to protect the body against free radicals damage to the cells. There are natural antioxidants found in various foods and synthetic antioxidants, such as vitamin supplements.

Calorie Restrictions

Calorie Restriction

The quest for longevity and life extension has produced many different approaches to prolonging one's life. One of those methods used to improve health and hopefully extend lifespan is calorie restriction approach.

DMAE Deanol

DMAE Deanol

DMAE has a dual purpose as a medical compound. It's used in health supplements to enhance vigilance and alertness, to create positive mood. But it's also used in skin care products to improve skin tone.

Free Radicals

Free Radicals

These are unstable compounds created by oxygenation when the body breaks down food or by exposure to the environment. They cause damage to the cell membranes and can lead to more serious damage and degeneration.



Usually known as smart drugs or cognitive enhancers, nootropics were developed in the 1960s as synthetic supplements, to improve cognitive abilities. Their origins go back to the ancient times, as natural nootropics.

PCPA Fenclonine

PCPA Fenclonine

Found in Centrophenoxine, PCPA is used for depletion of serotonin. While being a very important neurotransmitter, excess serotonin can cause a variety of health problems. PCPA is used to lower high serotonin levels.

Senile Cataracts

Senile Cataracts

One of the most common vision problems in elderly people, cataracts can be cause of blindness, especially in some countries. Cataract is a gradual clouding of the eye, due to protein build up that happens with age.



The end bits of human chromosome (DNA structure) are called telomeres. They protect chromosomes and with age get shorter. Telomerase activators can lengthen them and keep living cells functioning better.

Knowledge base

This knowledge base gives you better insights and understanding of common medical terms and compounds, often used in association with pharmaceutical products and health supplements. You'll understand better what certain terms and expressions mean and why certain compounds are used in medicines and for what purpose.

More to the point, we try to explain what is their practical value to your health and wellbeing.

On these pages you will also find links to relevant products available here where applicable, and to other authority and medical sites dealing with the subject matter. So, there are some good resources on the subjects, too.

See also our Health Articles for more supplement information and check our Newsletter Archive, which contains some practical health advice, in among other things.

Illustration of all things medical
When it comes to pharmaceuticals and health supplements information, you will often encounter some terms and compounds that are unknown or unclear. This short definitions guide aims to help you fill in your knowledge gaps with clearer explanations of commonly used medical terms and their use in pharmaceuticals.

Analogue (or Variant)

In chemistry, analogue is a structural derivative of a parent compound that often differs (varies) from it by a single element. It usually means that a particular compound is very similar to its parent compound, or comparable to it. For example, Adrafinil is an earlier analogue to Modafinil - it means Adrafinil is very similar to Modafinil. Or, Vasopressin is a natural version of Desmopressin. Put another way, analogue simply means 'relating to'.

Aqueous Humour

No, it's nothing to do with being funny. It's to do with you eye and maintaining a good vision. Aqueous humor is the clear fluid in the front of the eye, between the cornea and the iris, that provides nutrients to the cornea and the lens. This fluid is produced by the ciliary body. Glaucoma causes a difficulty in draining this fluid, and pressure builds up. The result is damage to the optic nerve and loss of vision. One of the most effective products to use for maintaining good eye health are Can-C eye drops, based on N-acetylcarnosine. They're also effective in preventing and used in treating senile cataracts.

Blood-Brain Barrier

The existence of the blood-brain barrier was first noticed by Paul Ehrlich in the 19th Century. Essentially the blood-brain barrier is a membranic structure that protects the brain from chemicals and other substances in the blood. Although this is designed as a protective mechanism for the brain, some of substances or compounds are able to cross this barrier, such as for example Melatonin and Picamilone, bringing about positive effects on the brain and the body.


A 'feel-good' hormone and neurotransmitter is a precursor (forerunner) of adrenaline. Neurotransmitters are chemicals used by the brain to communicate signals between neurons and other cells. Low levels of dopamine are related to Parkinsons disease. Dopamine is extracted from Dopa, which is used in treatment of Parkinsons. Smart drugs like Deprenyl (Selegiline) in particular increase levels of dopamine in the brain and is used as preventative for Alzheimers and Parkinsons diseases.


GABA is short for 'gamma amino butyric acid'. It is the amino acid that acts as an inhibitory neutrotransmitter in the brain. Found in Picamilone and Piracetam. Increased amounts of GABA in the body produce relaxing, anti-anxiety effects. GABA is also believed to increase the amount of HGH - Human Growth Hormone.


Also known as nicotinic acid, niacin is a water-soluble vitamin B3 (previously known as vitamin PP). This means it's easy absorbed, but not stored in the body. Niacin helps insulin regulate blood sugar levels (useful for diabetics) and lowers cholesterol. Severe niacin deficiency can cause pellagra - a vitamin deficiency disease.

Senescent cells

These are also known as "dead" cells, no longer cuntional in the body. But they can be potentially harmful to the body, as they block creating of the new and working cells. They can also cause chronic inflammation, which by itself leads to many health issues. These dead cells can be removed from the body using senolytic drugs, such as Dasatinib.


This refers to small molecules and drugs that are used to remove dead or senescent cells from the body. These cells can inhibit creation of new cells (rejuvenation) and are known to be inflammatory when they remain too long in the body. Senolytic drugs, such as Dasatinib and Quercetin, help remove these cells and are thus known as antiaging drugs. In effect, they improve body's physiological function and extend its longevity. Stem cells, too, are considered to be potentially senolytic agents, as they enhance immunity and improve healing.

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